Interdisciplinary Studies / Интердисциплинарни изследвания http://journals.naim.bg/index.php/IntStudies <p>The journal has been established at the beginning of the 1980-es as part of the editing policy of the then Archaeological Institute and Museum – BAS. It has to occur once in a year. The journal publishes scientific papers related to archaeology: archaeozoology, archaeobotany, anthropology, ethnology, geophysics, geodesy, mineralogical and chemical analyses, GIS and the application of Information technologies in archaeological studies, and other topics, when dealing with some aspects of archaeology studies. The journal is published also as e-journal that will assure an open access and broaden its public.</p> <p>Списание "Интердисципплинарни изследвания" е създадено в началото на 80-те години, като част от изданията на Националния археологически институт с музей при БАН. Издава се един път годишно. Публикува научни статии, свързани с археологията: археозоология, археоботаника, антропология, етнология, геофизика, геодезия, минераложки и химически анализи, географско-информационните системи и използването на информационните технологии в археологическите проучвания, както и други изследвания свързани с археологическите проучвания биха могли да бъдат публикувани. Списанието се публикува в електронен вариант, като по този начин се осигурява открит достъп до съдържанието му и по този начин ще спомага за по–широк кръг на читатели.</p> National Institute of Archaeology in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences / Национален археологически инситут с музей при Българска академия на науките en-US Interdisciplinary Studies / Интердисциплинарни изследвания 0204-966X Антропологичен анализ на костни останки, открити в археологически обекти от България. Разкопки 2015 г. http://journals.naim.bg/index.php/IntStudies/article/view/17 <p>During the excavations campaign 2015 we carried out anthropological analysis of human skeletal remains unearthed at 13 sites. The studied burials cover the period from the first half of 4th millennium BC to the Ottoman period.</p> <p>The summary anthropological results covered the investigation of 127 individuals, discovered in 115 archaeological features are presented in the current article (fig. 1, 2). The bone remains were found in burials by cremation and by inhumation (table 1, fig. 3, fig. 6).</p> <p>The cremated bones are highly fragmented in the result of the combustion. The fragments are very small (less than 1 cm), small (1-2 cm) and medium (2-5 cm) sized. The majority have light grey, greyish-white, matt white and white colours. This colouring indicates that the combustion of the buried individuals was made intensely on strong fire over/around 1000°C by a large influx of oxygen (open fire).</p> <p>In the necropolis near the village of Baley, Bregovo Municipality, the remains of four individuals are identified in the feature (No. 62), dated in 12-11 BC (Vârtop culture). In the preserved skeletal remains, eight petrous parts of temporal bones were recognizing, as well as three distal femoral parts. The analyses established that they belong to three subadults: a baby around six months, a child approx. 6-year-old and a child between 7 and 14 years, as well as of an adult female, over 30 years (fig. 5). A total of 2243 grams cremated skeletal remains are preserved. This gives us reason to suppose, that the deceased persons had been burnt, collected and placed in the urns simultaneously. After the cremation process the bone fragments have been placed in four pottery vessels.</p> <p>The archaeological sites in which the inhumation was practised are ten (fig. 10). The buried remains are preserved in different grade according to the influence of environmental factors, secondary grave destructions and to the type of intake food by individuals.</p> <p>The anthropological analysis is indicating a high mortality in early childhood (up to 7 years) through all investigated periods. The mortality decreases during late childhood and adolescence and increases sharply in the age group of Adultus when it reached its peak. This trend is most clearly expressed in the investigated burials from the LBA-EIA and the Antiquity (5th c. AD). Only one case of elderly (over 60 years) was identified among the examined anthropological material from the Hellenistic necropolis in Mesarite locality, town of Sozopol.</p> <p>At this stage of researches distribution between two sexes is almost equal, with a slight predominance of males. In the females, the death was occurred at an earlier age between 20 and 40 years (Adultus), while for males – more often in a mature age between 40 and 50 years. This tendency can to be bound by complications during pregnancy and childbirth.</p> <p>The absolute distribution of stature by categories shows that the high male individuals prevail (fig. 11). In females dominate those with medium stature (fig. 12). Very short and short individuals were not recognised in both sexes. These indicators point for a good physical development of individuals in their lifetime, especially of the males.</p> <p>Out of the 91 analysed inhumated individuals at 75 are preserved partly or entirely jaw bones and dentition. The high percentage of established dental and facial pathology is noteworthy, registered in 53 cases (70.66%). The percentage distribution of the dental pathology is presented in Table 2.</p> <p>Dental caries and its complications prevail in percentage ratio, including leading to the antemortem tooth loss. The frequency of this kind of diseases is increased by age, as for mature age group (over 40 years) are typical the effects and the complications of caries – tooth cysts and partial antemortem tooth loss. Data from this study and also the results of research of other authors suggest that over the centuries the frequency of dental caries is gradually increasing. This fact can be explained mainly by the changes in diet and type of food intake.<br>Pathological changes on different skull departments dominate in earlier epochs (4th mill. BC and the EBA) as a result of metabolic and nutritional diseases that are especially dangerous in children since they lead to a breach in normal growth and development.</p> <p>Pathological changes affecting postcranial skeletons are meeting in 43 inhumated individuals (Table 3). The high rate is for the degenerative-destructive changes on the limbs, as well as insertionitis. These two types of diseases may be associated with an intensive physical activity of individuals.</p> Borislava Galabova Nadezhda Atanasova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-04 2018-01-04 25 5 38 Растителни останки от светилища и некрополи http://journals.naim.bg/index.php/IntStudies/article/view/18 <p>The use of plants in variety of rituals is common practice in the Antiquity. Numerous archaeobotanical remains from different archeological sites presented evidences that some plants were particularly introduced to the religious rituals. The goal of the present study is to identify specific plants and food that was subject of ritual practices. The paper will discuss similarities and differences between different plant remains in the archaeological contexts and will identify which plants were in use as a ritual food. The study is based on a comparative archaeobotanical analysis of several Bronze Age –Iron Age sanctuaries in the therritory of Bulgaria and gives a clear indication of certain similarities and differences between the different regions, which will be discussed as well. The current paper attempts to summarize and make a synthesis of archaeobotanical data, provided from 12 sanctuaries.</p> <p>On the basis of the evidence currently available, there are several main differences in regard to the cultivated plants that are established. The recorded variety of plant species used in ritual context – cereals, pulses, fruits, etc., mainly depends on the location of the sacred place and the ecological characteristics of the region. In pit sanctuaries einkorn was more frequently used in rituals, as in mountaintop and rock sanctuaries free threshing wheat is dominant along with barley and millet that also occur in the studied samples. Barley is also recorded in archaeobotanical material, collected at the site of Nessebar „Kindergarten“ / site „Detska gradina“, Kabyle and Krepost.</p> <p>Presence of millet in some Late Iron Age sites like Koprivlen and Svilengrad, indicates that it was among the cultivated cereals in the region and was used even in ritual practices.</p> <p>Although most of the botanical remains found in sanctuaries are quite common, they evidence diversity in characteristics of the floristic assemblages.</p> <p>Analyzed material includes numerous findings of four types of wheat: einkorn, emmer, spelt wheat and free threshing wheat.</p> <p>Millet, naked and hulled barley, rye, oat also occur, along with some Leguminous plants presented by: pea, lentil, bitter vetch, chickpea and grass pea <em>(Lathyrus sativus</em>). A wide range of fruits and nuts that grow wild in the vicinity of forest habitats is also represented – such as wild grape, blueberry, raspberry, wild cherry, plums, acorn, walnut, etc.</p> <p>A matter of interest are the plant remains from jujube <em>(Zizyphus vulgaris</em>), pink rockrose (<em>Cistus incanus</em>)<em>, </em>European nettle tree or the so called Mediterranean hackberry (<em>Celtis australis</em>), that were recorded for the first time and were probably used with purpose in ritual practices.</p> <p>Some of the studied archaeological structures can be interpreted as special sacred places, while other, according to the analyzed material, cannot be defined with certainty. That means plant remains in these contexts may be used as offerings, other could be part of food storage.</p> <p>The current overview provides evidence that cultivated plants, even in small amounts, were common element of ritual practices. Big amounts of grass pea and chickpea, recorded in samples from Ovtschartzi and grass pea in Debrashtitza evidence their use with ritual purpose.</p> Tzvetana Popova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-04 2018-01-04 25 39 62 Social identities and chipped-stone technological cycles in east Balkan and Anatolian late prehistoric contexts http://journals.naim.bg/index.php/IntStudies/article/view/19 <p>The article takes into consideration three different aspects of the relationship established between the social identity and chipped-stone technologies for production of stone tools and objects. These aspects include the notions of ‘distance’, ‘exotic’, and ‘quality’. I analyze the question how these aspects inscribe themselves into the networks of communication and exchange, and how they are understood by the prehistoric communities from the Neolithic, Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age in the Balkans and Anatolia. In this study I put a special focus on landscape metaphors, information flow, embodied skills, and gender relations, all of which constitute the phenomenology of the past human behavior. I narrow down my analysis on revealing the added value these notions bring about to the ‘special’ artifacts, made by ‘special’ materials, and how they participate in the formation of social identities. The major goal is to find out the process of establishing the social inequality among the prehistoric communities in the Balkans and Anatolia. Geographically, my study focuses on the Balkan-Anatolian region and includes examples drawn from different archaeological contexts. I use two criteria for analysis of the technological cycles as part of the social identity: expansion of the knowledge about distant regions (presence of high-quality flint varieties), and the social conventions for their representation (‘special’ artifacts that are being exchanged over long distances). In this way I represent a great number of archaeological facts that prove the discrete geographic nature of the process of establishment of social inequality among the prehistoric communities from the Balkans and Anatolia.</p> Tsoni Tsonev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-04 2018-01-04 25 63 78 A method for mineralogical predicting the mining and metallurgical centers of the Early Chalcolithic to the Bronze Age (Case study from the water-catchment basins of the rivers Struma and Mesta, SW Bulgaria) http://journals.naim.bg/index.php/IntStudies/article/view/20 <p>Abstract</p> Oleg Vitov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-04 2018-01-04 25 79 99