Numismatics, Sigillography and Epigraphy / Нумизматика, сфрагистика и епиграфика 2020-05-15T19:31:48+03:00 Ivan Jordanov Open Journal Systems Numismatics, Sigillography and Epigraphy journal / Списание Нумизматика, сфрагистика и епиграфика Кому принадлежи емисията нискономинален бронз с типовете кон в галоп надясно/кипселе – на жителите на Бизанте или на „владетеля на приморските области“ Севт II 2020-05-15T08:33:16+03:00 Boryana Russeva <p>In 2004, the collector eng. Stavri Topalov revisited once again the subject of the small denomination bronze coinage of Odrysai and Greeks from the northern seashore of Propontis, united by the common reverse type – vessel with two handles (kypsele/kotyle) and the common cult of the principal Thracian deity – the anonymous Goddess Mother as to her the greatest temple along the lower flow of Hebros was devoted according to Titus Livy (XXXVIII, 40-41). In this regard Topalov publishes an extremely interesting coin which reverse type is the known kypsele, but the obverse is covered with the figure of a galloping horse to right (fig. 1). On the obverse of the bronze coin with a horse//kypsele, released by Topalov, one can clearly see a part of a circle with a dot – a solar symbol engraved over the horse’s figure – the same as the engraved one on some silver coins of Dikaia in Thrace (fig. 2). On the other hand, on the reverse of the coin one can clearly read the letters B (beta) and I (iota) engraved on both sides of the kypsele. Their graphics are exactly the same as the letters on the bronze of the town of Bisanthe on the northern Propontis seashore struck with the types of head of the Great Goddess Mother//kypsele (fig. 3) as well as on the later bronze of the same polis, according to the online catalogues dating from the 3rd–2nd c. BC (fig. 4-5-6). The next partially struck off letters on the reverse – above the two-handle vessel are not clear – perhaps Σ (sigma) and E (epsilon). The coin is a private possession. According to its publisher’s words, it was found not far away from Svilengrad, at the foot of the Sakar Mountain. Topalov, however, offers a rather ambivalent comment. In the pursuit of maximum completeness, he interprets the emission as a royal one of Seuthes I, as a town coinage of some of the towns in the Southeastern Thrace and even as a mixed royal – town coinage of Seuthes I and a polis under his power whose ethnic begins with the letters BI but is not Bisanthe.<br>In case the unique bronze of the types of horse//kypsele was not struck in the mint yard of Bisanthe because of the striking resemblance to the legends on its coins, it should not necessarily be attributed to the coinage of Seuthes I (424-405), as Stavri Topalov did. Because to him, the first Seuthes, belong the extremely scarce in amount silver didrachms and drachms issued once according to the Attic weight standard and signed with the eloquent legends of ΣΕΥΘΑ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΟΝ and ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ (THE SILVER OF SEUTHES and THE SIGN/STAMP OF SEUTHES). With their declarations, the inscriptions played a rather political role of a blazon of the king – publisher than a coin legend intended for commodity - money relations. Seuthes, for whom Thucydides exclaims to be the most influential in the Odrysian Kingdom after Sitalkes (Thuc. II.101.5), from the position of his vast wealth and power declares to his contemporaries that the ruler of Thrace, who struck some of his wealth in the form of coins, is he himself – the brother’s son of the Odrysian king Sitalkes and heir to the paradynast Sparadokos. Continuing his father’s tradition of minting silver, Seuthes, whose treasury was annually replenished with 400 talents in gold and silver (a colossal amount of time equivalent to 400 thousand drachmas or 100 thousand tetradrachms and comparable to the revenue of the First Athenian Maritime Union (Delian Symmachia) before the Peloponnesian War, hardly needed to produce coins for the economic and fiscal needs of his own country - the most significant and prosperous of “all the kingdoms that existed in Europe between the Gulf of Ionia and the Euxinus Pontus” (Thuc. II.97.5). Nevertheless, he probably needed a symbol, a sign, a seal for his power for to mint once his silver issues signed with the legends of ΣΕΥΘΑ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΟΝ and ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ (perhaps in connection with a particular political, military or diplomatic occasion, sunk in time-lapse).<br>This was not the case with the coinage – silver and bronze – of Seuthes II. The name of the Odrysian Seuthes (II) is associated with the Greek mercenary army, led by the Athenian Xenophon, which in the winter of 400 BC returned from Asia Minor to Hellas. Stepping on Thracian soil, the Greeks were hired by Seuthes to help him regain his hereditary power in southeastern Thrace. In “Anabasis”, Xenophon records the personal story of Seuthes. According to the latter, he was raised as an orphan by the Odrysian dynast Medocos (Metokos), the ruler of the Inner (Upper) Kingdom. When he ripened into manhood, Seuthes sought help from the king to recover the lands from which he was ousted. He received a military detachment from Medocos, but also hired Xenophon’s Greek Hoplites. To Xenophon’s writings in his two books, “Anabasis” and “Hellenica” (Xen. Anab. VII, 2.17-38; VII, 3. 17-38; VII, 4-8; Xen. Hell. III, 2. 2-3, 5, 8-11; IV, 8.26), we owe almost everything we know today about this ruler of the Odrysai. Seuthes II was a paradynast (co-ruler) of the Odrysian “king of the interior of the country” – Medocos (Xen. Anab. VII, 2.32; VII, 3). The possessions of Seuthes were in close proximity to the seashores of Propontis and Hellespont (today’s the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles) and for that reason Xenophon describes him as the “ruler of the coastal areas” (Xen. Hell. IV, 8.26). They covered the territories along the line of Salmydessos – the Thracian Chersonesos (today’s the Gallipoli Peninsula) and to the south – towards the Sea of Marmara reaching the vicinities of Perinthos. An active participant in military-political clashes in the zone of the Straits during the Corinthian War (395-387), Seuthes skillfully maneuvered between the warring camps of the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians, managing to derive maximum territorial and material benefits, not without the help of mercenary units. His enviable international authority gave his name to that of Sparta and its allies, Persia, and Athens and its allies, when signing the Royal Peace (387) in the town of Susa, the capital city of Susiana. This was also the last mention of the Odrysian Seuthes in the ancient chronicles, whose reign today dates back to the period of ca. 405-387 BC. <br>“So ... when he learned of the discord between Amadocus, the Tsar of the Odrysai, and Seuthes, the ruler of the coastal areas, [Thrasybulus the Syrian – author’s note] succeeded in reconciling them and making friends and allies of the Athenians. He believed that if a friendship was established between the Thracians and Athens, the cities adjacent to Thrace would look even more favorably on the Athenians”, Xenophon informs us in his “Hellenica” (Xen. Hell. IV, 8, 26). This reconciliation of the two Odrysian rulers through the mediation of Athens occured in the years of Thrasybulus’ maritime victories (389/8) and on the eve of the Antalkid Peace (387) – when, according to the Turkish researcher Oya Yağiz, a confederation of cities along the Thracian coast of the Marmara Sea was probably established, materialized in the coinage of bronze with common denominations and coin types. It does not seem impossible the bronze coin with galloping horse//kypsele and the letters of Σ-E – B-I on the reverse published by Topalov and found close to our border with Turkey – not far away from the area of Kypsela and its neighbouring cities viz. in the orbit of the paradynast Seuthes – “the ruler of the coastal areas” - to bind to this Odrysian dynast, at the time of whom and with whose heavy bronze coins (fig. 7) the common bronze type with kypsele was introduced - an allusion to the common cult of Odrysai and Greeks to the Great Goddess Mother. In the same context, we have to look at the Vetren coin with a round shield//kypsele (fig. 8), found on the territory giving also the silver tetartemorion of Seuthes II with head of horse to left//wheel with four spokes and the name of the ruler (fig. 9), as well as at least 11 pieces of the heavy Seuthes’ bronze of the types of horse protome//kypsele alongside an impressive number of Odrysian royal silver and bronze coins bearing the names of Metocos and Amatocos I, Kotys I, Amatocos (II) and Teres (II). As of May 2013, they totaled 143 pieces – 10 silver and 133 more bronze issues, whose number is steadily increasing every year during the archaeological excavations of the Thracian settlement, called the “еmporion Pistiros”.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Златните и сребърни александровки, сечени в град Кара, Северна Месопотамия, под контрола на Филип III Аридей, Антигон Монофталм и Деметрий Полиоркет 2020-05-15T08:26:22+03:00 Boryana Russeva <p>The ancient Carrhae, today’s Harran, is the biblical Harrânu – the residence of Patriarch Abraham of the Jews and one of the provincial capital cities of the Northern Mesopotamia. For the first time the town was mentioned about 2000 BC in the tablets of Mari along with its greatest landmark – the Temple of the God of the Moon (Sin) set up in honour of the famous cult of Ba’al-Haran. <br>The imperial mint in Carrhae was established as early as under Philip III Arrhidaeus when issued the emission of golden and silver Alexanders of Price 3796-3809 signed with a common monogram (fig. 1-2). The localization of this early posthumous Alexander type coinage in Mesopotamian Carrhae we owe to Georges Le Rider who has dated the emission ca. 320 – 317 BC, while M. Price considers the same emissions struck within the general period of ca. 315 – ca. 305 BC together with obviously the later in style and iconography tetradrachms and drachms in Price’s Corpus under Nos. 3787-3789A (fig. 4a-4b). Most probably the latter were issued immediately before the golden and silver Seleucids of SC1.39-46, signed initially by the name of Alexander, and then by Seleucus – a production of the first Seleucid (fig. 5-6). The authors of SC1 are dating them from ca. 310-290 BC while according to Price only the variants with Alexander’s name were minted in ca. 305 – ca. 300 BC.<br>A unique gold coin appeared recently on the numismatic market – a posthumous stater of the types and name of Philip II Macedon (fig. 3), signed with the monogram peculiar of the early Alexanders from Carrhae. The golden Philip’s issue was struck synchronously with the Alexander’s type of gold of the variants Price 3801-3802 (fig. 2) for the identical controls on both coin emissions. For this reason, the experts from CNG convey from Carrhae to the capital city of Cilicia – Tarsus, the entire series of early Macedonian silver and gold which main control is the signature of – a manipulation rejected as unconvincing by the author of the work here presented. Furthermore, the mint of Carrhae of Mesopotamia issued also the variants of Price 3565-3567A sharing the same coin dies (fig. 7-9), tied in turn with the group of Alexanders of the variants of Price 3787-3789A. Alongside being bound in die inside each one, both identical in style and minted synchronously coin groups of Price 3565-3567A and Price 3787-3789A also share the same obverse die through (retouched!) obverse matrix from Gülnar 1963 (pl. 54) – a piece of the variant of Price 3787 and Varna’1955, N 59 of the variant of Price 3567A. <br>Price 3787-3789A and Price 3565-3567A which “forment un groupe homogéne” in the Le Rider’s words, were obviously too popular among the ancient ones and most probably were intended to pay mercenaries for we have them in more than one Hellenistic hoards found mostly on the territory of the Balkans. The word is about the hoards from Pet mogili (IGCH 856) and Varna’1955 (IGCH 859), Jabukovac and Olympia, Balkan area hoard, Gülnar (Meydancikkale) and Kirazli – all of them containing coins of both homogeneous in style and chronologically identical groups of tetradrachms of the mint in Carrhae struck in the years between 315 and 310 BC and therefore bound with the control of the Antigonides in these areas. <br>It seems noteworthy that this silver coinage of Carrhae was issued most probably in a hurry, urgently, hinted by the retouched coin dies as well as by the relatively negligent iconography of some of the variants. Quite possibly these Alexanders type of tetradrachms (and drachms) were a target emission to pay the military contingents of Antigonоs Monophtalmоs and his son in the tumultuous years of confrontation with Seleucоs Nicator for power over the Eastern regions of the Empire. The date of ca. 317/315-310 BC would precede the time when the Seleucids of Carrhae were issued, among which we again meet the signature of the same engraver ΔΙΟ[] (fig. 5-6) we know from the variants of Price 3567A and Price 3787 (fig. 4a-4б).</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ранните монети в голямото сребърно съкровище от Сердика 2020-05-15T17:45:09+03:00 Dochka Vladimirova-Aladzhova <p>In 2015, a large coin hoard was discovered during regular archaeological research of Saint Nedelya – North Site. It is composed of 2982 silver and 5 bronze coins laid in a ceramic pot covered with red varnish and bearing the name of Selvius Kalist scratched in Greek, most probably the owner of the wealth. The coins are dating from the 2nd c. BC – AD 3rd c.<br>The find from Sveta Nedelya relates to the mixed type hoards and comprises three groups of coins – Roman Republican and Imperial denarii, and bronze provincial coins of the smallest denomination. The latter distinguish the hoard in question from the ones discovered so far in Bulgaria. <br>The work here presented discusses the earliest coins in the hoard – the Roman Republican denarii, the Imperial denarii of the Julio – Claudian dynasty (27 BC – AD 68), and the year of the four emperors (68 – 69) to Emperor Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty (69 – 96). <br>Six Republican denarii are chronologically the earliest of all, bearing the names of the monetary magistrates L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Q. Servilius Caepio (100 BC), L. Marcivs Philipvs, P. Clodius M.f. Turrinus, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and those of the Roman Empire belong to 18 emperors, 2 caesars and 10 empresses as the smallest being the number of pieces of Julio – Claudian dynasty and the pieces from the time of Nerva – Antoninus are the most numerous. The denarii from the time of the Severan dynasty are the latest in date. <br>The archaeological research carried out in 2015 – 2018 east of Sveta Nedelya Square covered the terrain explored in 1950ies through rescue excavations. According to the latest results and their interpretation, the initial plan of the revealed building included chain-arranged premises from the east, roughly square in plan and similar in dimensions as all of them have broad entrances from the east. The premises have no connection with each other, as well as with the large premises developed west of them. The premises have no connection with each other, as well as with the large premises developed west of them. The premises have no connection with each other, as well as with the large premises developed west of them. Judging from the archaeological finds, in the first half of the 3rd c. they were employed as shops, workshops, pubs, etc. The northern end of the building is covered with a large hall basilical in plan (premises N 6); the data of its architectural shape show that in the 2nd – 3rd c. it had public functions. <br>The eastern premises of building VI explored in 2015 – 2018 are completely analogous to the new excavations and show that in the 2nd – 3rd c. this sector of the town was center of trade and craft production. After the mid 3rd c. building VI underwent significant reconstructions that did not change its plan but rather the functions of the premises. The reason for this is probably a cataclysm experienced, as evidenced by the preserved levels of the floor with traces of fire. These circumstances are directly related to the discovery of the coin hoard in the large building VI, in premises N 1, on whose northern wall, in a recessed niche, the pot with Roman coins was found. <br>The archeological data of the terrain and the analysis of the hoard give reason to suppose that it was concealed by its owner at the last reconstruction of the premises. The likely reason for the coin hiding is the third-century inflation and the depreciation of silver, circumstances that forced the owner to put them in a ceramic pot and hide in a specially prepared hiding place in one of the commercial premises, which may have been owned or controlled by him. Unfortunately, some fatal events prevented him from taking back the hidden wealth, and so it reaches the present day. </p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Монетно съкровище (II – III в.) от Старо село, Сливенско 2020-05-15T18:11:34+03:00 Miroslava Dotkova <p>In 2017 a hoard containing 67 provincial Roman coins entered the Numismatic depot of the National Museum of Archaeology in Sofia. They were found during agricultural activities on the land of Staro Selo, Sliven region. The earliest coins in the composition of the hoard come from the time of Emperor Septimius Severus (193 – 211) struck in several mint yards under the name of the Provincial Legatus L. Aurelius Gallus (202 – 205), and the latest in date pieces were issued under the reign of Philip the Arab (244 – 249). The emissions of both large mints in Moesia Inferior prevail – Marcianopolis and Nicopolis ad Istrum participating with almost the same number of coins and forming almost 3/4 of its composition – 53 pieces in total. This fact gives the grounds to assume that the hoard was accumulated in the territories north of Haemus and probably in extreme circumstances transferred to Province of Thrace in the mid 3rd c. Almost the same number of coins of Marcianopolis and Nicopolis ad Istrum is an indication that most probably the hoard was accumulated in the region located between the mentioned large towns.<br>Initially the coins were in a good condition but at a certain moment after they were buried all of them were burning as some of the coins have been affected to varying degrees. During the Barbarian invasions in the mid 3rd c. the eastern areas of the Province of Thrace suffered the hardest hit and most probably the concealment of the hoard from Staro Selo was associated with the severe raid of the Goths in 250 – 251, without excluding the possibility of a later date of depositing. </p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Неизвестни медни български монети от края на XIV в. 2020-05-15T18:18:34+03:00 Konstantin Dochev <p>The work presents two copper coins of quite curious iconography and general date from ca. late 14th c. The first coin has a thick blank struck and stamped together with a matrix, with a hollow cylindrical body and sharp edges. One of its sides displays a vertical monogram with the name and title of the Tsar known from the copper coins of the Bulgarian Tsars Johan Alexander (1331 – 1371) with his reign in the capital city of Tarnovo and of Ivan Sratsimir with residence in Vidin. The other side bears a royal figure with a large head, a low stemma with propenduli and a body similar to pentagram, depicted in a peculiarly naïve way, with thick engraving strokes. For a prototype of this imitative coin they have taken several emissions of copper coins with flat blanks belonging to Tsar Johan Alexander struck in some provincial mints with a general location near the regions along the seashore and Eastern Dobrudzha, between Varna and Drastar (Silistra) in the period of 1360 – 1370. <br>The second coin also shows the distinctive features of an imitative issue but in connection with the copper coins of Tsar Ivan Sratsimir struck in the region of Vidin. Its blank is thin, rectangular in shape. One of its sides displays a standing figure of an angel with wings spread, probably Archangel Michael, holding a three-point scepter with a short handle in his right hand, and in his left hand – a small globe. Below, to the right next to his feet - a monogram of the letters АР (АРХАNГЕЛЪ). The figure is depicted with a thin engraving stroke and a deviation from the liturgical Orthodox model. In a rather naïve and rude way, also with a thin engraving, the reverse side bears the representation of Christ with a nimbus, tunic and mantle, sitting on a throne without a back, his two hands raised for blessing. The availability of copper coins of Tsar Ivan Sratsimir of original and imitative origins in the Vidin region, dating from ca. 1380 to 1390 indirectly determines the location and date of such issues of copper imitation coins. <br>The presence of copper original and imitation coins struck in various official and private mints and workshops in the regions of Northern Bulgaria from Vidin and Tarnovo to Drastar and Varna produces valuable data on a differentiation of a common coin circulation in the Vidin and Tarnovo Kingdoms, notwithstanding the great territorial losses and economic hardships from 1370 on, as a result of the continuing Ottoman and Tatar invasions.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Контрамаркираните грошове в монетната циркулация / на Добруджанското деспотство 2020-05-15T18:28:20+03:00 Vladimir Ovtcharov <p>The medieval silver coins from Dobrudzha area represent a very significant section of the Bulgarian medieval numismatics. Undoubtedly the most interesting are the countermarked silver coins. Hoards containing such coins appear along the Black Sea coast, next to the Danube Delta commercial centres. Some researchers refer to this as a Dobrudzha coinage, although the Groshen come from Serbia and a small number – from Bosnia, Byzantium and Bulgaria. The Bulgarian specialized literature defines four types of countermarks relating to the Dobrudzha rulers although without clear evidences. The attention of the researchers is mainly drawn by a countermark with the letter “τ”, which in Bulgarian numismatic literature is regarded as the initial of Dobrotitsa, written in Greek (Τομπρότίζα). It is remarkable that many years of scholarly attempts to analyze the countermarked coins remain inconclusive. If we only for a moment abstract ourselves from this vision and look for other factors of the age, it immediately stands out the permanent presence of the Golden Horde in the region. Their countermarking can be determined as an adjasment as valid means of payment of a regime demonstrating its authority. The presence of Groshen displaying a couple of countermarks, as well as images used do not confirm the thesis of their belonging to a ruler of Dobrudzha. I have to note that the hypothesis proposed here for the Dobrudzha countermarks coincides very well with the existing view of the Tatarian influence on the copper editions of Terter (1370 – 1390). However, there is one major problem - the symbols used are unknown in the numismatics of eastern coinages. Many years ago, Romanian scholar P. Diaconu suggested that the additional marking of the images on the coins refers to the activities of one of the rulers of Wallachia, most probably Mircho Stari (1386 – 1418). The crescent and the star are the symbols of the ruler’s seal, with which he stamps his charters and is present in the coinages of most Wallachian-Moldovan rulers. The new hypothesis presented here, based on the opinion of P. Diaconou, can classify the emissions of Terter as being issued under conditions of Wallachian dependence.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Куартинг на Сигизмунд I Люксембургски (1387 – 1437) от района на Провадия 2020-05-15T18:33:12+03:00 Nevyan Mitev Dragomir Georgiev <p>The work presents a quarting of Sigismund I of Luxembourg (1387 – 1437) found near the Bulkanite Dam, between the areas of Hrabrovo and Ovchaga villages, Provadia municipality. <br>In recent years, most of the coins of Sigismund I of Luxembourg found in Bulgarian lands have been associated with the Crusades of King Wladisłav Warneńczyk. At present, two quartings of the same king originate from the Ovech Fortress, and the coin here in question is the third similar type found in this geographical area.<br>The battle of Ovech was among the most significant ones of the Varna Crusade in the autumn of 1444. The fortress was conquered and almost completely destroyed. Certainly, hostilities between the Crusaders and the Ottomans took place beyond the walls of the fortress as well. We can assume that a similar battle happened also in the area of Ovchaga and Hrabrovo villages. Nevertheless, to confirm this assumption, more artifacts in the area need to be discovered that can be linked to these events.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Част от колективна находка с турски акчета от XV – началото на XVI в., намерена в землището на с. Душево, Севлиевско 2020-05-15T18:36:39+03:00 Vladimir Penchev <p>In 2006, a hoard comprising silver Turkish coins (akçe) from the 15th – early 16th c. was found in agricultural work in the area of Dushevo village, Sevlievo region. The coins were scattered by their discoverers, so their original number in the hoard could not be ascertained. Most likely it was several hundred. Only 8 pieces of these akçe entered the numismatic collection of the National Museum of History – Sofia. One of them belongs to Sultan Mehmed I (1413 – 1421); 4 coins – to Sultan Mahmud II (1451 – 1481) and 3 coins – to Sultan Bayezid II (1481 – 1512). Obviously the hoard was concealed at a certain point under the reign of Sultan Bayezid II.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Част от колективна монетна находка със сребърни западноевропейски флорини (гулдени) от XVII в., от фонда на Националния исторически музей – София 2020-05-15T18:39:24+03:00 Vladimir Penchev <p>Five silver Western European thaler coins from the 17th c. are presented, a portion of a coin hoard found in Bulgaria. They are housed in the National Museum of History – Sofia. All of them are of the face value of florin (silver gulden). Four of the coins belong to the Netherlands towns of Deneter (1 piece), Embden (2 pieces), Zwolle (1 piece), and one coin is of Grafschaft Oldenburg in Denmark. The coins participated in the monetary circulation on the Bulgarian territories in the 17th and 18th c.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Част от съкровище със златни монети от втората половина на хiх – началото на хх век, намерено в околностите на рилския манастир 2020-05-15T18:42:01+03:00 Vladimir Penchev 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Варварските нашествия в провинция Втора Мизия според данните на сфрагистиката 2020-05-15T18:45:34+03:00 Zhenya Zhekova <p>The whole 6th century was filled with continuous fights, which the Empire was forced to lead with the Slavs, Avars and Arabs. Particularly dramatic were the 380s when many of the Byzantine strongholds restored during Justinian I’s extensive construction work were destroyed, and the Barbarians settled down in them. One of the worst attacks was in the fall of 585, when the Avars, along with the Slavic tribes subordinated to them, invaded the Provinces of Moesia Secunda and Scythia Minor, captured the fortresses of Marcianopolis and Dorostol, then crossed the Balkan Range and seized Messembria. <br>The purpose of this study is to trace the cataclysms to which the Province of Moesia Secunda was subjected on the grounds of sphragistic data in attempt to localize the sphragistic material in specific geographical areas.<br>There are some differences between the documented seals north and south of the Balkan Range. The number of those from the Province of Moesia Secunda is almost double compared to the rest of the findings. We have to look for an explanation in the dynamics of events in this part of the Empire related to the frequent raids - coming from the north, leading to great devastation and insecurity on the one hand and attempts by the authorities to neutralize the invaders and their attacks. <br>Among the 79 documented seals from the Province of Moesia Secunda, those with monograms prevail, characteristic of the 6th – 7th c., displaying only the personal names of their owners. Some of them are represented by their titles, not by the positions they hold. The most numerous are the seals with the title of patrikios. The rest of the seals belong to individuals, since they bear only one name. This circumstance makes it difficult to identify them with a specific personality from the narrative sources. However, several seals deserve a special attention. Not only do they inform us about persons who have participated in historical events, for which there are reports in the chronicles, but they are also rare sphragistic pieces. <br>The topographic location of the finds with seals forms several fortification units with a specific function in the period of active barbarian invasions to the Province of Moesia Secunda. The most numerous are the pieces from Dorostol and the region of Silistra, and from the areas of Varna and Shumen. In practice, this was the territory subjected to the most destructive raids in the late 6th – early 7th c. <br>The conclusion is that after the Barbarians had overcome the Limes, it was the Moesia Secunda which was tasked with confronting the invader. This task was accomplished by reinforcing the garrisons in the big towns and by bringing troops into the smaller fortresses located between them. The garrisons were not able to get rid of the danger, but they could neutralize it and at an opportune moment, with the help of troops from the capital, eliminate it. It is precisely the coordination of the military operations that is associated with the increased number of seals in this Byzantine province during the period of active raids, destruction and territorial losses for Byzantium.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Залезът на крепостта Маркели по сфрагистични данни 2020-05-15T18:48:26+03:00 Zhivko Aladzhov <p>Lead seals have been discovered at different times and circumstances in the Markeli Fortress area, housed today in museum or private collections. Most of them have been published, but there is not yet an analysis of the role of this fortress in the light of the sphragistic data. <br>The work hereby presents a very rare seal. Its description is as follows: <br>The obverse bears letters arranged in a monogram shape; they can be read as Άλεζίον, and below – τού.<br>The reverse displays letters that can be interpreted as Κοντοστεφάνου. From the obverse τού is related to Κοντοστεφάνου or τού Κοντοστεφάνου.<br>Lead. 37 mm<br>The description reveals that the seal is different in design compared to the rest known Molybdobullae. However, the collection of Dumbarton Oaks contains a similar piece with the same legend but struck by still another bulleuterion. The rarity of the seal is also evidenced by the fact that so far from Bulgaria there is not known and published one with the above description.<br>The analysis of the archaeological and sphragistic artifacts from Markeli shows that the molybdobulla in question is most probably associated with the decline of the fortress in the 12th c.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Оловен печат на Ирина Палеологина от средновековния град Лютица 2020-05-15T18:56:38+03:00 Philip Petrunov <p>The Medieval town – fortress of Lyutitsa is located 45 km west of Hadrianopolis, Edirne of today, at that time an important administrative and military centre in the Southern Thrace. One of the most interesting findings in 2018 was the seal of Empress Irene (of Montferrat) Doukaina Komnene Palaiologan (1274 – 1317). A similar seal has not been discovered so far during regular archaeological research on the Bulgarian territories. The molybdobulla was struck in Thessaloniki and Zacos and Vaglery describe the type under N 126d. <br>Irene (Yolande de Montferrat) Doukaina Komnene Palaiologan was the second wife of Andronikos II, considered to be a symbolic heir to the Boniface de Montferrat’s Principality of Thessaloniki. On the obverse the Empress is depicted as the Equal to the Apostles St. Helena. This is a reference to the symbol of the supreme divine intransitive power granted to the Roman Empresses by the Theotokos presented on the reverse of the seal. From the following decades of the 14th c. we know coin emissions of Byzantine and Bulgarian monarchs similar in iconographic aspect. <br>There is a legend around the representation of the Empress arranged in two vertical columns:<br>Irene pious divine sebasta Komnene Doukaina Palaiologan <br>The molybdobulla is housed in the National Museum of History in Sofia. </p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New lead sling bullets with inscriptions ΣΤΡΑΤΗ | ΑΛΕΞΑΝ and ΒΑΣΙΛΕ | ΑΛΕΞΑΝ found in Dobrudja (in Romania and Bulgaria) 2020-05-15T19:02:05+03:00 Metodi Manov Gabriel TALMAŢCHI Gabriel CUSTUREA 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Посветителен надпис, намерен близо до с. Бресте, плевенско 2020-05-15T19:04:12+03:00 Krassimira Karadimitrova <p>In 2016, the lower sector of a dedicative ara was discovered during a terrain survey in the land of Breste village, Pleven region and entered the Stone Monuments Depot of NIAM – BAS under Inv. N K 8537. <br>The ara is made of white fine-grain marble without inclusions; its upper sector is broken as well as a large fragment of its left half, fragments of its lower surface and large sections from its back. In its current state, it is 33,50 cm high, the same in width and 21 cm thick, with calcite deposits all over the preserved rear surface. <br>The inscription field is not completely saved. Sections of the side edges are broken so affecting the inscription. In its present state the field is 15,5 cm high and 24 cm wide. It bears a carved Latin inscription in three lines, without being bounded by a frame and without the lines themselves being completely horizontal. The height of the letters varies from 2 to 3 cm. <br>The inscription reads:<br> …<br> (in)vict(o) • v(otum) m(erito)<br> p(osuit) • pro • salute<br> sua • Sise • Mucasi…</p> <p>The names of the dedicator are Thracian and relatively rare. The personal name Sise(s) does not appear for the first time in inscriptions. In the form of Zises, the name has been attested in the epitaph of Zises Mucazenis found in Breste (the territory of Oescus) (ILBulg 176), dating from AD 2nd c. It is generally accepted that it is the simplified version of Zizis, the latter unprecedented so far. <br>The patronimicon could be completed to Mucasius, a cognomen which appears very rarely and up to now the examples come only from an inscription from Rome (CIL 06.02390b) dating from the period of 231 – 270 or Musis. <br>The monument is dating from the second half of the 3rd – early 4th c. on the grounds of the paleographic data and is a valuable testimony to the prosopography of the age.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Изображение на ръка в епиграфските паметници 2020-05-15T19:08:51+03:00 Katerina Venedikova <p>The study discusses images of a human hand – a palm with five fingers or a palm with five fingers and a wrist – and also their connection with epigraphic monuments in Arabic script. On the one hand, there are rare cases of epigraphic pieces and manuscripts written in Arabic or Ottoman alphabet, on which a hand is depicted. On the other hand, there are a larger number of hand-shaped metal objects bearing Arabic or Ottoman Turkish inscriptions. The author analyzes the upper part of a tombstone with embossed decoration and preserved first line of an Arabic text from Gorno Lukovo village, Ivaylovgrad region. The specific element in the decoration is two palms with vertically positioned fingers, connected to each other just above the wrist. Such an image of connected palms (one with the fingers up and the other with the fingers down) has not been registered so far in epigraphic monuments from Bulgaria. Another rare element in the decoration of tombstones is two embossed strings, each with six beads (coins). The shape of the tombstone from Gorno Lukovo is found to be similar to the shape of three more tombstones from the 19th c. One of them is from Chernichevo village, Krumovgrad region, where half of the villagers are Bulgarians – Christians, and the other half - Bulgarians – Muslims. The other one is a Bulgarian tombstone with an embossed cross and an inscription in Bulgarian, known from Dolni Yuryutsi, Krumovgrad region, from the Bulgarian – Mohammedan cemetery there. There is a string with five coins on it. The third piece is a Muslim tombstone with a relief decoration of a string with five coins on the chain and with an inscription in Ottoman Turkish language carved in Arabic from the Bektaşi village of Bivolyane, Momchilgrad region. It is noteworthy that the string is an element of the decoration of Bulgarian Christian, Muslim and Bulgarian - Mohammedan tombstones. <br>Secondly, the author provides a facsimile, a description, a read text in Turkishized Arabic, a translation into Bulgarian and a commentary on the embossed mirror written text in Arabic over the face side of a metal right hand arranged over the fingers, the palm and the wrist. The seal is housed in the Museum of History – Haskovo and comes from Turkey. The religious text and the reference to God as a Healer suggest the healing purpose of the subject. <br>By comparing such metal hands with inscriptions, it is found that they may have different uses. On the fingers and palm of one right hand - a metal mirror from the 17th c. – the names of the descendants of the first Shiite Imam Ali have been written. The upper sector of a metal Alem (a banner – rod) represents a left hand with fingers and a palm: on which religious texts in the Turkishized Arabic language are read in the right form.<br>Two prints of a right hand to the wrist with Arabic language inscriptions on the fingers and palm are preserved on an Arabic manuscript page from the late 16th c. housed in the Oriental Department of the St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. An amulet stored in the NIM represents the right hand to the wrist made of a copper alloy plate. On one side it bears short Arabic inscriptions and sharp-edged decorations, and on the other side – a rich floral and geometrical ornamentation, probably from the late 18th c. Most of these metal objects represent a right hand. A common feature of the inscriptions on them is that they include ayat (verses of the Quran), hadises (records of a saying or action of Prophet), some of the splendid names of God and also invocations to God. There is not any date written on them. These monuments are associated with Shiism and Alevism. </p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Отново за полските монети от 3 гроша и техните подражания или имитации (право на отговор) 2020-05-15T19:11:19+03:00 Krasimir Krastev 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Реликвиар от Възраждането във фонда на Националния археологически институт с музей 2020-05-15T19:13:37+03:00 Bisera TOMOVA <p>The depot of NIAM – BAS houses a silver reliquary box decorated with the image of St. George on horseback and a six-pointed star (Inv. N 4500). It is shaped as a parallelepiped made by casting. Its measures are as following: 4,5 cm in length; 3,4 cm in width; 0,9 cm in thickness; and 33.35 grams in weight. There is no information about its provenance. The opening of the box is at the top, set up horizontally. It was closed by a groove. The cover and one of the pendants have not survived.<br>Five rings are soldered on the narrow side holding on chains four Turkish coins of Sultans Mahmud I (1730-1754) minted in Constantinie; Mustafa III (1757 – 1774) – 2 coins, one struck in Egypt and the other one – in Istanbul; and Abdul Hamid I (1774 – 1789) struck in Constantinie. <br>A piece of cloth or cotton soaked in chrism was put in the opening of the reliquary. Most likely, they were wearing the box fastened on a robe or belt. Judging by its shape and workmanship, as well as by the Turkish coins, it may be dating from the late 18th – early 19th c.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Капачета за териак на венецианската аптека „Alli due mori“ (При двамата маври“) от България 2020-05-15T19:18:43+03:00 Iliyan Petrakiev <p>The lead lids for teriac of the Venetian pharmacy of Alli due Mori (At the two Moors) appear comparatively seldom on the territory of today’s Bulgaria compared to the production of the more popular Alla Testa d’Oro (At the golden head). <br>All known to this day caps for teriac of this pharmacy, not only from Bulgaria, show uniformity in both size and relief on the upper surface (Pl. XXIII, XXIV). The image of both Moors is too schematic; the inscription is unevenly spaced in the same way with respect to the central composition on all the lids. <br>Thanks to a well preserved lid of this kind (Pl. XXIV. 16), which is 40 mm in diameter, we can make some reflections and assumptions, as well as to supplement the description of the image. The much better and more detailed reproduction of the central composition should be noted – both heads positioned in an embossed circle. It is clearly noticed that the eyes are convex, the noses are enlarged and the lips are markedly thickened, open and probably recreating a verbal moment on the left head and closed on the right one. The tunics that the two Moors are wearing also have differences. In addition to the central image, significant differences are observed in the inscription. It is much more legible, carefully spelled out and properly arranged – running between the circle holding both Moors’ heads and a second circle that closes it from the outside. The inscription begins from the central upper sector and its beginning is separated from its end through a sign – probably a star. Its end is marked with a dot that is also used to separate the words from each other. The inscription contains double L in the word of ALLI, as it should be if compared to the coat of arms of the pharmacy (Pl. XXIV. 17), and reads: THERIACA<br>The observations made above suggest that, similar to the production of At the Golden Head Pharmacy in Venice, this is again about mass imitation, which bears the marks of the same type of production using similar moulds and probably in the same atelier (Петракиев in print).</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## XII Международен симпозиум по Византийска сигилография 29 – 30 май 2019 г., Санкт-Петербург, Русия 2020-05-15T19:24:25+03:00 Zhenya Zhekova 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Книгопис на българската нумизматика и сфрагистика 2015 – 2018 г. 2020-05-15T19:27:41+03:00 Miroslava Dotkova 2019-12-27T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ж. Жекова. Васил Хараланов – Един живот в писма (Писмата на д-р Васил Хараланов до проф. Тодор Герасимов) 2020-05-15T19:31:48+03:00 Ilya Prokopov 2020-05-15T19:31:48+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##